Monday, May 25, 2020
Framing the User: Social Constructions of Marijuana Users and the Medical Marijuana Movement Nelson A. Pichardo Almanzar Dept. of Sociology Central Washington University Ellensburg, WA 98926 Pichardn@cwu.edu Thanks to Laura Appleton and Ericka Stange for comments on an earlier draft. Thanks also to Kirk Johnson for his assistance in locating criminal data sets. Framing the User: Social Constructions of Marijuana Users and the Medical Marijuana Movement ABSTRACT Social movements are continuously engaged in the act of framing. Whether it is to present their message in a positive light or to cast their opponentÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments in a negative light, SMs find it necessary to engage in a public contest over how they are perceived.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The ostensive purpose of framing in social movements is to advance the acceptance of the cause. Framing helps accomplish this in several ways. First, it identifies the problem and locus of attribution. The Ã¢â¬Å"larger the range of problems covered by the frame, the larger the range of social groups that can be addressed with the frame and the greater the mobilization capacity of the frameÃ¢â¬ (Gerhards and Rucht 1992:580). Second, frames can vary in terms of their flexibility and rigidity and their inclusivity and exclusivity. Purportedly, the more flexible and inclusive the collective action frame used, the greater the potential appeal of the frame to the public. Third, fra mes vary in their interpretive scope and influence. If they are fairly expansive in their scope they function as Ã¢â¬Å"master framesÃ¢â¬ (Snow and Benford 1992). Master frames have broad appeal to the population increasing the movementÃ¢â¬â¢s appeal. Examples of master frames include democracy, victimization, and individual rights frames. Fourth, frames 4 also vary in terms of their cultural resonance. The more a frame resonates or connects with the culture, the greater its effectiveness or mobilizing potential. The success of framing efforts is also a consequence of its credibility. Ã¢â¬Å"The credibility of any framing is a function of three factors: frame consistency, empirical credibility, and the credibility of the frame articulatorsShow MoreRelatedFundamentals of Hrm263904 Words Ã |Ã 1056 Pageswileyplus.com ALL THE HELP, RESOURCES, AND PERSONAL SUPPORT YOU AND YOUR STUDENTS NEED! 2-Minute Tutorials and all of the resources you your students need to get started www.wileyplus.com/firstday Student support from an experienced student user Ask your local representative for details! Collaborate with your colleagues, find a mentor, attend virtual and live events, and view resources www.WhereFacultyConnect.com Pre-loaded, ready-to-use assignments and presentations www.wiley.com/college/quickstart
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Analysis of The Gettysburg Address In the early days of the United States, loyalty to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s state often took precedence over loyalty to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s country. The Union was considered a Ã¢â¬Å"voluntary compact entered into by independent, sovereign statesÃ¢â¬ for as long as it served their purpose to be so joined (Encarta). Neither the North nor South had any strong sense permanence of the Union. As patterns of living diverged between North and South, their political ideas also developed marked differences. The North needed a central government to build an infrastructure of roads and railways, protect its complex trading and financial interests and control the national currency. The South depended much less on industrialization and federalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Not long after Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas joined them. These states made up the Confederacy. This was the beginning of the bloodiest war ever to be fought on U.S. soil. The American Civi l War. For over two years, control seemed to shift back and forth between the North and South, neither ever having clear dominance over the other. The war appeared headed towards stalemate until July 1, 1863 and the 3 day Battle of Gettysburg. This battle was considered, Ã¢â¬Å"by most military historians to be the single most decisive turning point in the Civil WarÃ¢â¬ (Encarta). In an effort gain foreign recognition, lessen pressure on confederate forces at Vicksburg, obtain much needed food and clothing, and Ã¢â¬Å"increase Northern war-weariness, General Robert E. Lee boldly lead his troops into northern territoryÃ¢â¬ namely, Gettysburg (World Book 485). Here Lee encountered Union troops lead by General George G. Meade and battle commenced. In a decisive Union victory (mostly due to their occupation of Cemetery Hill) the battle ended on July 4, 1863. However both sides suffered heavy casualties totaling nearly 50,000 which were split almost equally between North and South. This horrific battle gave the divided states some common ground. The extensive loss of life was, no matter Confederate or Union, was all American and the pain of it shared by each andShow MoreRelatedSpeech Analysis : Gettysburg Address1006 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesKelly Meyer English p 4 Mrs. Bower April 4, 2017 Speech Analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"Gettysburg AddressÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Fourscore and seven years agoÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The infamous words spoken in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on November 19, 1863 by the one and only Abraham Lincoln. Many people know and use these opening words but have never heard more of the speech. President Lincoln write this speech to dedicate hallowed ground to those brave American soldiers we lost at the Battle of Gettysburg during the Civil War. LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s speech is one that isRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of The Gettysburg Address876 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesabiola bonny Professor terry ulet July 29, 2017 SPC1017 In the Gettysburg address one part of this inspirational speech moved me. Abraham Lincoln states Ã¢â¬Å"We are met on a great battlefield of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.Ã¢â¬ My relationship with this particular part in this speech is Lincoln turnsRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of The Gettysburg Address By Abraham Lincoln813 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesKatrina Ta Giang 22 December 2017 AP Language and Composition(7) Mrs. Faumuina Speech Analysis Essay: The Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln Ã¢â¬Å"The Battle of Gettysburg, fought from July 1 to July 3, 1863, is considered the most important engagement of the American Civil WarÃ¢â¬ (History). It was a battle in Gettysburg Pennsylvania, consisting of the Union Army and the Confederate Army. The main purpose behind this battle was due to Ã¢â¬Å"Robert E. Lees plan to invade the North and force an immediateRead MoreRhetorical Analysis of The Gettysburg Address Essay776 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Four and a half months after the Union defeated the Confederacy at the Battle of Gettysburg, Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address on November 19, 1863. He gave the Union soldiers a new perspective on the war and something to fight for. Before the address, the Civil War was based solely on statesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights. LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s speech has the essence of America and the ideals that were put into the Declaration of Independence by the founders. The sixteenth president of the UnitedRead MoreRhetorical Analys is Of Abraham Lincoln s Gettysburg Address1564 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA rhetorical analysis explores nonfictional works and determine if the techniques used make the piece effective (Texas AM University). The Gettysburg Address is one of the most notorious speeches. A rhetorical analysis of this legendary speech would reveal the key components that made it so prominent. The evaluation of the genre, and rhetorical devices, ethos, pathos, and logos, in the speech show how the piece was effective. Abraham Lincoln is one of the most renowned presidents in history. DuringRead MoreAnalysis Of Edward Everett s Gettysburg Address1433 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMaria Mendez RHE 321- Principles of Rhetoric (43310) Professor Davida Charney Edward EverettÃ¢â¬â¢s Gettysburg Address Gettysburg Final Draft May 4, 2016 Abraham Lincoln is arguably one of the United States greatest presidents and is well-known for writing one of the most iconic literary pieces in American history, the Gettysburg Address. LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s Gettysburg Address is an outstanding 272-word oration, meant to have been a Ã¢â¬Å"few appropriate remarksÃ¢â¬ (Wills), yet it is considered to be one ofRead MoreGettysburg Address Rhetorical Analysis Essay examples889 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFour and a half months after the Union defeated the Confederacy at the Battle of Gettysburg, Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address on November 19, 1863. He gave the Union soldiers a new perspective on the war and a reason to fight in the Civil War. Before the address, the Civil War was based on statesÃ¢â¬â¢ rights. LincolnÃ¢â¬â¢s speech has the essence of America and the ideals that were instilled in the Declaration of Independence by the Founders. The sixteenth president of the United States wasRead MoreRhetorical Anal ysis Of Abraham Lincoln s Gettysburg Address 1669 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesQUESTION 1 Abraham Lincoln speech given at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on November 19, 1863 was described by Senator Charles Sumner, in 1865, stating Ã¢â¬Å"the battle itself was less important than the speech.Ã¢â¬ Explain. U.S. President Abraham Lincoln was not given the spotlight at the SoldiersÃ¢â¬â¢ National Cemetery on November 19, 1863, and was instead invited to give a few remarks. In fact Edward EverettÃ¢â¬â¢s speech would have been the official Ã¢â¬ËGettysburg AddressÃ¢â¬â¢ was it not for its two hours in length andRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Abraham Lincoln s Gettysburg Address981 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Fourscore and seven years agoÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ is the statement in which Abraham Lincoln started Ã¢â¬Å"The Gettysburg AddressÃ¢â¬ .152 years ago, Lincoln delivered this well-known speech in front of an audience who was searching for help during a time of war. Some may believe it was not an inspiration why others will say it was. To some Americans, it might have even brought faith. Just like any other work, this essay was composed of a rhetorical situation and rhetorical devices; which can be broken down into specific factorsRead MoreThe Gettysburg Address And I Have A Dream Speech Analysis759 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"The Gettysburg Address,Ã¢â¬ a speech written by Abraham Lincoln, and Martin Luther KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"I Have a DreamÃ¢â¬ speech states the importance of freedom and equality. Martin Luther King message to his audience In order to communicate their message of freedom and equality, Martin Luther King and Abraham Lincoln used allusions in their speeches. One major similarity in their use of allusions is their reference to the Constitution of Declaration of Independence. Yet, a difference is that King alludes to
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The business I have chosen is one company that has been particularly successful in creating an overall company image in my option has been Starbucks. They have been able to maintain a dominant position in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s market. Each morning most of our society needs a good cup of coffee in order to start their day Starbucks has marketed themselves to be steps away from your location. At one point, we looked at Starbucks as a high-end marketer. They have been able to uphold an image of an elite club in which we can become members. However, things managed to change in the recent years where a 4.00 cup of coffee was becoming a luxury item. Starbucks Corporation right now operates on a worldwide market for specialty of coffees. They are currently operating in a worldwide captaincy extent to Americas; Europe, Middle East, and Africa; China/Asia Pacific; and Channel Development. Starbucks currently offers their customers a variety of coffee, several verities of teas, packaged roast ed whole bean or ground coffees, single serve products, and juices and bottled water. Each store provides a menu of fresh food, several ready-to-drink beverages; along with verities of food products. The market structure and competitive environment of the industry in which they have chosen to do business falls into the category of retail coffee and snack industry. One article brings back the memory to think back when we would reach for a can of Folgers or Maxwell House and assume we were drinking theShow MoreRelatedStarbucks Corporation : Company Profile1848 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Starbucks Corporation 1 Starbucks Corporation is probably the w orldÃ¢â¬â¢s most well - known coffee shop chain. It is officially the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest coffee chain, with a total of 21878 stores operating globally as of 28 December, 2014. The story of Starbucks began back in 1971, when it was just a single store, roasting and retailing ground coffee as well as whole beans in Pike Place Market inRead MoreStarbucks company profile study2583 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ STARBUCKS MALAYSIA Berjaya Starbucks Coffee Company Sdn Bhd is an authorized licensee of Starbucks Coffee International, Inc. It is wholly owned subsidiary of Berjaya Group Berhad which holds 51% share and Starbuck Coffee International, Inc has 49% share capital of the company. As a Starbucks franchisee in Malaysia, currently it is holding more that 45% share of the local gourmet coffee market. It operates Starbucks retail outlets throughout Malaysia and committed to offer the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s best andRead MoreStarbucks Corporation Public Company Profile1113 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesStarbucks Corporation is a specialty coffee retailer, roster and marketer internationally. The first stand alone Starbucks coffeehouse was opened in Seattle, Washington by Jerry Baldwin, Zev Siegl and Gordon Bowker in 1971. In 1985 Starbucks Corporation was founded and, in 1987, the original founders would sell the company to current CEO Howard Schultz for $7 million (Ã¢â¬Å"Starbucks CorporationÃ¢â¬ ). Having 22,519 retail stores in 67 countries worldwide, Starbucks has grown into the largest coffeehouseRead MoreGeneral Information / History : Starbucks1062 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesInformation/History Starbucks Corporation is a specialty coffee retailer, roaster and marketer internationally. Jerry Baldwin, Zev Siegl and Gordon Bowker established the first stand-alone Starbucks coffeehouse was opened in Seattle, Washington in 1971. In 1987, the original founders sold the company to the present CEO Howard Schultz for $7 million (Ã¢â¬Å"Starbucks CorporationÃ¢â¬ ). Currently having 22,519 retail stores worldwide, Starbucks has developed into the largest coffeehouse company globally (Ã¢â¬Å"Starbucks CompanyRead MoreStarbucks : Ethical And Ethical Issues Essay1089 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAbstract Starbucks is renowned for its morality due to their innovative sustainability and environmental policies and operations. They strive to go beyond mandated regulations by implementing ethics as part of their core practices. However, no matter how flawless their code of ethics is; they, too, face ethical issues and commit unethical acts. First, they are responsible for putting small, local coffee shops out of business which creates a uniform retail culture throughout cities. Second, they advertiseRead MoreMarketing Analysis : U.s. Capita Coffee Essay782 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUnit III Research Project (Starbucks) Angelo R. Jones BBA 3201-Priciples of Marketing Columbia Southern University Industry Analysis. Study shows that U.S. per capita coffee consumption has not really varied in over 15 years. Although the consumer has since evolved from regular brewed coffee to a more sophisticated gourmet brew, the overall intake for coffee has relatively remained the same based on the Gallup polls. (Brown, 2015) The Starbucks Company has managed to change the palletRead MoreStarbucks Is An American Company1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesStarbucks is an American company based in Seattle, Washington, that offers coffee products and cafÃ © services throughout the world. The company was founded in 1971, and is now the largest coffeehouse company in the world. It now has a total of 23,132 stores in 65 countries and territories, including in the United States, China, Canada, Japan and United Kingdom. Starbucks sells high-quality whole bean coffees from different parts of the world along with other types of freshly brewed coffees, expressoRead MoreStarbucks Case Study Essay1591 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagescoffee , intimate service, and ambient atmosphere. Starbucks worked closely with growers in Africa, South and Central America, and Asia-Pacific regions to insure the quality of its product. Starbucks called all employees partners and worked hard to train them with the skills necessary to best serve the customer. The atmosphere at Starbucks was crafted after the European-style espresso bar. The company goal was to create ambience through the Starbucks experience and by making the area comfortableRead MoreStarbucks Corporation ( Loxcel Starbucks Map, 2016 Essay1207 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages STARBUCKS SATISH SARAVANAN VEERAVELU Northwest University: International Business BUSM 6123 11/1/2016 Professor Larry Walker Ã¢â¬Æ' Starbucks Corporation (Loxcel Starbucks Map, 2016) is an American coffee company and coffeehouse chain founded in Seattle, Washington in 1971. It operates 23,768 locations worldwide, including 13,107 in the United States, 2,204 in China, 1,418 in Canada, 1,160 in Japan and 872 in South Korea (as of Jan 8, 2016). Starbucks (Peet s rides coffee s third wave Read MoreStarbucks Case Analysis1320 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesStarbucks Case Analysis Table of Contents I. Executive Summary II. Company Profile III. Marketing Analysis IV. Competition V. Company Product and Services VI. Recommendations/Conclusion I. Executive Summary In 1971, three young entrepreneurs began the Starbucks Corporation in Seattle Washington. Their key goal was to sell whole coffee beans. Soon after, Starbucks began experiencing huge growth, opening five stores all of which had roasting facilities, sold coffee beans and room
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Write about theRevenue Streams for Virtual Gaming. Answer: Virtual gaming refers to the activity where a person can experience the feeling of being in a three-dimensional environment and experience an interaction with an environment in the process of gaming. Virtual gaming centers provide wide opportunity for making stable revenues through the thrilling games in the virtual space. Individuals desire to experience the thrilling games that have a cooling effect from the tedious life activities. The entertainment facilities attract several individuals regardless of their age who together converge to enjoy the technological experience (Griffiths, Davies Chappell, 2003). The paper analyzes the revenue streams realized through the different virtual gaming centers and how it promotes its sustainability in the entertainment industry. The games in the sector are diverse which include almost everything people do in their normal lives. In this respect, individuals find an array of activities that can be used to boost their morale and desire to try the games. The real nature of the game drives more individuals as opposed to the case of video games with the stimulators making the gaming experience real. Consequently, the firms make money through the large number of youths, teens, and the mature individuals who visit the locations for gaming. The industry counts on the customer experience to drive its revenue stream. Gaming is not a onetime thing as it has several effects to the probability of individuals coming back. Gaming is addictive, as the more one enjoys, the less one is likely to decline trying a second offer (Granic, Lobel Engels, 2014). Coupled with the superior experience in virtual gaming, individuals are bound to play several games thus driving increased funds for the business. Customer experience and sat isfaction is one marketing tool that the business uses to drive its revenues. Kids to a large extent form the largest batch of customers for the business segment who through the appealing games on offer are more likely to engage in the business. As the desire to play grows coupled with the revolution brought about by technology, the business remains profitable and promising in the present and future decades. References Griffiths, M. D., Davies, M. N., Chappell, D. (2003). Breaking the stereotype: The case of online gaming. CyberPsychology Behavior, 6(1), 81-91. Granic, I., Lobel, A., Engels, R. C. (2014). The benefits of playing video games. American Psychologist, 69(1), 66.
Monday, April 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"The Collector of TreasuresÃ¢â¬ by Bessie Head Essay Paper Bessie Head was born and reared in from South Africa. She is the writer of Ã¢â¬Å"The Collector of Treasures. Ã¢â¬ Many points that she depicted in her narrative were about the oppressive attitudes some work forces had about adult females and kids and how society outcast certain adult females based upon what happened in their lives or upon what they could or could non make. In this narrative. Ã¢â¬Å"The Collector of Treasures. Ã¢â¬ Dikeledi. a strong and resilient characteris married to a adult male named Garesego who is a womaniser. Garesego believed that everything had to be about sex. He did non take attention of his duties as a adult male. Head described him as the type of adult male who had sex with adult females like Canis familiariss. out of canal lecherousness. Out of the four old ages that they were together. Garesego got Dikeledi pregnant 3 times and left her. He did non go forth and travel to another small town. he stayed in the same small town and did non take attention of the boies he helped convey in the universe. On the contrary. Paul is wholly different from Garesego. Paul is portrayed as the adult male who cares about his adult female and treats her like a individual. He is at that place for his married woman. Kenalepe. and their kids. Sing Paul dainty his married woman like a individual was something new for Dikeledi and seeing that type of action from a adult male to his married woman led Dikeledi to seek to speak to Garesego. We will write a custom essay sample on Ã¢â¬Å"The Collector of TreasuresÃ¢â¬ by Bessie Head Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Ã¢â¬Å"The Collector of TreasuresÃ¢â¬ by Bessie Head Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Ã¢â¬Å"The Collector of TreasuresÃ¢â¬ by Bessie Head Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Garesego is your typical male. so when Dikeledi asked him for money to take attention of their kids. he expected sex in return. Dikeledi had another program in head. Her mentality in this scenario was that Garesego phallus is the lone thing that makes him different from her and he used to command adult females. Therefore. when she castrated him. non merely did she kill him. she made him her equal. Garesego was a adult male who did non hold any regard for adult females. He used them as sex objects and threw them off when he was done. In DikelediÃ¢â¬â¢s experience. he used her one excessively many times. Without his phallus. Dikeledi felt he could non ache anyone any longer. particularly her. She had watched him handle her wronglongenough every bit good as other adult females. Dikeledi felt that without his phallus. Garesego and she would be on the same degree. This narrative is entitled. Ã¢â¬Å"A Collector of TreasuresÃ¢â¬ and Dikeledi was decidedly a aggregator of hoarded wealths. Even though throughout the full narrative. she had nil but grief after grief and bad things done to her. nevertheless. she did non allow that impact who she was destined to be. Dikeledi was non the ordinary lady. she was stronger than the mean adult female and cognize how to make everything the mean adult female and adult male could. That is one thing she treasured. Dikeledi besides treasured the fact that she could make what she needed to make to do certain her and her household was taken attention of. Dikeledi treasured the fact that she was a strong. independent adult female. DikelediÃ¢â¬â¢s name meant Ã¢â¬Å"Tears. Ã¢â¬ Throughout the full narrative. Dikeledi neer shed a tear whether it was felicity or unhappiness. She valued her strong willed head and her finding to make the incredible. Due to the fact that she was a strong adult female likely meant that she caused person else tears. but non herself. There are some dry points in this narrative. One is that the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s name was Dikeledi and you pronounce the beginning of her name as Ã¢â¬Å"DickÃ¢â¬ which is a slang name for phallus. Besides. the writer of this narrative name is Bessie Head and Dikeledi had a good Ã¢â¬Å"headÃ¢â¬ on her shoulder. Dikeledi was a aggregator of many hoarded wealths and she added her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s phallus to the aggregation. Throughout DikelediÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult life. she has looked beneath the surface and collected little hoarded wealths. and these gave her the strength to travel on.
Monday, March 9, 2020
Deregulation Essays - Air Traffic Control, Free Essays, Term Papers Deregulation Deregulation of the U.S. airline industry has resulted in ticket prices dropping by a third, on an inflation-adjusted basis. As a result some 1.6 million people fly on 4,000 aircraft every day. Airlines carried 643 million passengers in 1998, a 25% increase over 1993 and the FAA estimates that the nations airline system will have to accommodate 917 million passengers by the year 2008. The growth in air travel threatens to overwhelm the presently inadequate air traffic control system, which has not kept pace with available technology in navigation, communications, and flight surveillance. Much of the equipment used for air traffic control today is based on fifty-year-old technology; for example, analog simplex voice links for communications and ground-based radar for surveillance, and VHF Omnidirectional Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) for navigation. The lack of system automation imposes heavy workloads on human air traffic controllers and increases the risk of accidents in heavy traffic situations. Capacity limits are being reached in both airports and airspace, with congestion delays in departure and arrival schedules reaching record numbers. Funds to upgrade the air traffic control system are available in the trust fund created to receive the tax applied to airline passenger tickets and the tax on fuel for general aviation. The General Accounting Office says modernizing the air traffic control system will cost at least 17 billion for just the first 5 years of the FAAs 15-year National Airspace System improvement plan. It is the NAS that provides the services and infrastructure for air transportation. Air transportation represents 6% of the Nations gross domestic product, so the NAS is a critical element of our national economy. Given the size of the NAS, the task ahead is enormous. Our NAS includes more than 18,300 airports, 21 air route traffic control centers, over 460 air traffic control towers and 75 flight service stations, and approximately 4,500 air navigation facilities. The NAS spans the country, extends into the oceans, and interfaces with neighboring air traffic control systems for international flights. The NAS relies on approximately 30,000 FAA employees to provide air traffic control, flight service, security, and field maintenance services. More than 616,000 active pilots operating over 280,000 commercial, regional, general aviation and military aircraft use the NAS. On March 11, 1999, the FAA released the NAS Architecture Version 4.0 to the public. Key influences on the architecture include the 1996 White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, which recommended that the FAA accelerate modernization of the NAS, and the 1997 National Civil Aviation Review Commission, which recommended funding and performance management methods for implementing NAS modernization. It describes the agencys modernization strategy from 1998 through 2015. Based on the Free Flight operational concept, Version 4.0 contains capabilities, technologies, and systems to enhance the safety of the aviation system and provide users and service providers with more efficient services. Free Flight centers on allowing pilots, whenever practical, to choose the optimum flight profile. This concept of operations is expected to decrease user costs, improve airspace flexibility, and remove flight restrictions. The NAS Architecture is divided into three modernization phases and its implementation is being synchronized with the International Civil Aviation Organization to ensure interoperability and global integration. h Phase 1 (1998-2002) focuses on sustaining essential air traffic control services and delivering early user benefits. Free Flight Phase 1 will be implemented. Controller computer workstations will begin major upgrades. Satellite-based navigation systems will be deployed, and air-to-air surveillance will be introduced. The Year 2000 computer problem will hopefully be fixed. h Phase 2 (2003-2007) concentrates on deploying the next generation of communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) equipment and the automation upgrades necessary to accommodate new CNS capabilities. Satellite-based navigation systems will be further augmented in local areas for more precise approaches. New digital radios that maximize the spectrum channels will be installed. As users equip, automatic dependent surveillance ground equipment will be installed to extend air traffic control surveillance services to non-radar areas. Tools from Phase 1 will be deployed throughout the NAS and upgraded as necessary. h Phase 3 (2008-2015) completes the required infrastructure and integration of automation advancements with the new CNS technologies, enabling additional Free Flight capabilities throughout the NAS. Two important features will be NAS-wide information sharing
Friday, February 21, 2020
Transforming of Olympic Games - Assignment Example Budgetary transformation has been one of the leading factors. The International Olympics CommitteeÃ¢â¬â¢s (IOC) budget during the early half period of the 20th century was quite meagre. The then president of IOC, Avery Brundage was quite aggressive in his approach not to allow commercial stakes to play a role in Olympic Games. A shift in approach was seen in 1980 when Juan Antonio Samaranch was president of the IOC, as he wanted to bring about a change for making the IOC monetarily strong. The Olympic Program (TOP) was initiated by Samaranch in 1985. Still TOP membership fee is quite high, to the tune of US$50 million for a period of 4 years (Buchanon & Mallon, 2006). Coubertin was against making IOC a commercial organisation, as he defined Olympism Ã¢â¬Å"not a system but a state of mind...created by the cultivation of both effort and eurhythmy...the basis of absolute virility,Ã¢â¬ as cited by (Buchanon & Mallon, 2006, Introduction ci.). Politics has interfered in Olympics different ways. Take for example the holding of 1936 Olympics at Berlin, facing large scale boycott to raise voice against Nazism although the movement could not succeed. Racism was widely prevalent in American society at that time, as the African American Jesse Owens had to live in a racist environment even after winning four gold medals in track. The 1968 Olympics faced demonstrations from black athletes, inspired by the civil rights and black power movements.